The symptoms of osteoarthritis usually come on slowly. Joint pain, often described as a deep ache, is the most common symptom Table 01. Early in the disease, the pain does not usually last longer than a couple of hours. It may occur only after physical work or exercise. The pain subsides once you rest the joint. Occasionally, pain caused by osteoarthritis occurs someplace other than in the affected joint—a condition known as “referred pain.” For example, people with osteoarthritis of the neck often experience referred pain in the shoulder.
As the disease progresses, the pain may persist for longer stretches of time. Not everyone with osteoarthritis experiences pain; in fact, only one-third of people whose x-rays show evidence of osteoarthritis report having joint pain or other symptoms of the disease.
Osteoarthritis commonly causes stiffness, particularly during activity and in the morning after you get out of bed. The stiffness usually lasts less than 20 minutes. You may also experience brief stiffness after inactivity, such as riding in a car or sitting in a movie theater. The short duration of stiffness distinguishes osteoarthritis from rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized by longer periods of stiffness usually during the morning hours.
As osteoarthritis progresses, your range of movement (or flexibility) in the affected joint may become more limited. You may find it increasingly difficult, for example, to open a jar, sew on buttons, or turn your neck to look over your shoulder while driving. You may also notice a crunching feeling or a grating sound when you move the affected joint--the result of the roughened cartilage on the surface of the bones rubbing together.
When osteoarthritis affects your hands, bony knobs called nodes may develop on your joints, giving your fingers and thumbs a gnarled appearance Figure 03. Nodes that appear on the joint closest to your fingernail are known as Heberden's nodes; those that appear on the middle joint are called Bouchard's nodes
. The affected finger and thumb joints may feel painful or stiff at first, although the pain usually subsides within time. For some people, the pain is gone in as early as a few months, and for others it make take a couple of years. However, the bony knobs will remain. Heberden's nodes and Bouchard's nodes usually take years to develop, although they can sometimes appear within a period of weeks or months.
Figure 03. Heberden's nodes
Swelling, especially in the knee joints, can also occur with osteoarthritis.
Table 1. Symptoms of Osteoarthritis
Steady or intermittent pain in a joint (although not everyone with osteoarthritis feels pain) Joint stiffness upon standing or getting out of bed Swelling in a joint Appearance of bony knobs, or nodes, on fingernail or thumb joints A crunching feeling or sound of bone rubbing on bone when you bend a joint.
Although the precise causes of osteoarthritis are not known, age, gender, obesity, heredity, trauma, or overuse can increase your risk of developing the disease.
- Age. The incidence of osteoarthritis increases dramatically after age 40 in women and after age 50 in men. By age 65, half of all people have x-ray evidence of the disease in at least one joint, although their symptoms may be very mild. Not all people whose osteoarthritis shows up on an x-ray have symptoms of the disease.
- Gender. More women than men develop osteoarthritis; particularly osteoarthritis of the hand and, to a lesser extent, osteoarthritis of the knee. Men are slightly more likely, however, to develop osteoarthritis of the hip.
Obesity. Studies have shown that women who are obese are more likely to develop osteoarthritis of the knee than those of normal weight.
Researchers have found a weaker connection between obesity and osteoarthritis of the hip. Some studies suggest that obesity may also contribute to osteoarthritis of the hand, but this link remains controversial.
- Repetitive joint use and/or major trauma to a joint. Osteoarthritis, particularly of the knee, is more common in people whose jobs or hobbies require repetitive bending or other continuous “wear and tear” of a joint. Jackhammer operators, cotton mill and shipyard workers, and coal miners, for example, have all been found to be at an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. In addition, ballet dancers are especially prone to osteoarthritis of the ankle, and baseball pitchers to osteoarthritis of the elbow. The connection between regular, intense exercise, such as long-distance running, and osteoarthritis of the knee is less clear, however. X-rays of the knees of long-distance runners often show osteoarthritis has developed, even though the runners do not complain of any pain. On the other hand, people who have developed osteoarthritis in the knees, who also participate in more recreational, and therefore less regular and intense sports, tend to suffer from pain.
- Severe trauma to a joint. A fracture, whether as a result of a sport or other injury, can harm the joint in such a way that the cartilage is damaged. Damaging your cartilage can accelerate osteoarthritis. If you have had a fracture of the rounded bony part of the ankle, for example, you are at very high risk of developing osteoarthritis of the ankle.
- Heredity. Some forms of osteoarthritis, especially that of the fingers, appear to run in families.
- Common Side Effects of AntidepressantsFind out about common and not-so-common side effects of antidepressants and how to manage them.
- How Drugs Can Lower CholesterolDiscover how cholesterol-lowering medications work in your body to bring your cholesterol numbers down to ideal levels.
- Do Over-the-Counter Proton-Pump Inhibitors Work?You might wonder why you need a prescription for GERD if many PPIs are available over the counter. Get the answers to this and other questions about OTC PPIs.